The jötunn who stole Thor’s hammer Mjöllnir. He is solely attested in the eddic poem Þrymskviða.
One morning, upon waking, Thor discovers that his hammer is missing. He tells Loki and together they go to Freyja’s dwelling to borrow her feather-dress so that he might go looking for his hammer, and Freyja consents. Loki dons the feather-dress and flies until he reaches Jötunheimr. He sees Þrymr sitting on a mound and asks him if he has hidden Hlórriði‘s hammer. The giant confirms that he has hidden it eight miles deep in the earth and says that it will remain there unless Freyja is given to him as his wife.
Loki returns to Ásgarðr and tells Thor that Þrymr has his hammer but that he will not get it back unless they bring Freyja. They go to Freyja and instruct her to put on her bridal dress and come with them to Jötunheimr. Freyja is furious and refuses to go, so the gods hold council how they might get the hammer back. Heimdallr proposes that Thor disguises himself as the goddess, wearing a woman’s dress, a veil, and the Brísinga necklace. Thor reluctantly agrees. Continue reading HERE.
Þrymskviða The Lay of Thrym
The Thrymskwitha is one of the very best of the Eddie poems. It is the dramatic story of how Thor, aided by Loki, got back his famous hammer. Thrym had stolen it, and he would not give it up until they would bring him Freyja to wife; but she very indignantly refused to get married under any such terms. It is finally arranged, though much against his will, that Thor himself must dress up to impersonate Freyja, and go up to get married to the giant Thrym. The latter half of the poem contains the carrying out of this plan. But Thor is the great thunder-god. He is the largest and strongest of them all, and a ravenous eater and drinker. The story is elsewhere told of him that once, in a drinking contest, he lowered the sea several inches. It is he alone that was not allowed to walk over the bridge of the rainbow for fear he might break it down. What could be more incongruous and ludicrous, then, than to have this great clumsy god dress up as Freyja, the fairest of the goddesses, and to go off in her name to marry the ice-giant Thrym! The Norse poet has made good use of his opportunities, and we have in this poem a masterpiece of its kind.Continue reading HERE.
Thrymr Moon of Saturn
Thrymr was discovered in 2000 by Brett J. Gladman, John J. Kavelaars, Jean-Marc Petit, Hans Scholl, Matthew J. Holman, Brian G. Marsden, Phillip D. Nicholson, and Joseph A. Burns using the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii reflector on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, with adaptive optics. They discovered seven other Saturnian moons at the same time: Tarvos, Ijiraq, Suttungr, Skathi, Siarnaq, Erriapus, and Mundilfari.
Thrymr has a mean radius of 2.2 miles (3.5 kilometers), assuming an albedo (a measure of how reflective the surface is) of 0.06. It orbits Saturn at an inclination of about 174 degrees and an eccentricity of about 0.5. At a mean distance of 12.7 million miles (20.4 million kilometers) from Saturn, the moon takes about 1,094 Earth days to complete one orbit.
Thrymr is a member of the Norse group of moons. These “irregular” moons have retrograde orbits around Saturn – traveling around in the opposite direction from the planet’s rotation. Thrymr and the other Norse moons also have eccentric orbits, meaning they are more elongated than circular.
Like Saturn’s other irregular moons, Thrymr is thought to be an object that was captured by Saturn’s gravity, rather than having accreted from the dusty disk that surrounded the newly formed planet as the regular moons are thought to have done.
How Thrymr Got Its Name
Originally called S/2000 S7, Thrymr was named for a giant in Norse mythology who stole Thor’s hammer and offered to return it only if the gods gave him the very beautiful goddess Freyia to be his wife. The gods agree, but instead send Thor, disguised as Freyia. Thor as Freyia orders the hammer to be placed on “her” knee, whereupon Thor uses the hammer to kill Thrymr, along with the giant’s sister, who had asked for “Freyia’s” rings.SOURCE
This helmet-shaped cosmic cloud with wing-like appendages is popularly called Thor’s Helmet. Heroically sized even for a Norse god, Thor’s Helmet is about 30 light-years across. In fact, the helmet is more like an interstellar bubble, blown as a fast wind from the bright, massive star near the bubble’s center sweeps through a surrounding molecular cloud. Known as a Wolf-Rayet star, the central star is an extremely hot giant thought to be in a brief, pre-supernova stage of evolution. Cataloged as NGC 2359, the nebula is located about 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Canis Major. The sharp image, made using broadband and narrowband filters, captures striking details of the nebula’s filamentary structures. It shows off a blue-green color from strong emission due to oxygen atoms in the glowing gas.SOURCE
I create the clatter That comes with the lightning.
I am the bane of thurses, Trolls, tyrants, and chaos.
I destroy disorder And halt the dark forces.
I ride to bring the rain, Making red clouds above.
I was, am, and will be Always in the Nine Worlds.
Thor’s Helmet gets its glow from the massive unstable star WR7, a so-called “Wolf-Rayet” star which ejects much of its gaseous outer layers into space at speeds of up to 2,000 km/s. The ejected material from the star runs into the slower-moving gas floating between the stars. The collision excites the surrounding gas and causes it to emit light.
Wolf-Rayet stars are massive, fast-burning, and short-lived stars on their way to exploding as a supernovae. This phase of the star’s life only lasts briefly, which means Wolf-Rayet stars are quite rare. Only 150 have been discovered in the Milky Way.
The interstellar gas in and around this nebula is chemically enriched by the entrails of the Wolf-Rayet star. The rich blue-green color of the nebula comes from ionized oxygen ejected by the star. The reddish-pink color comes from excited hydrogen gas from the star and in the interstellar medium.Continue reading HERE.
Thor in the Cosmos
Mjöllnir: Thor’s Short-Handled Hammer
Recently we have shown that by comparing the classical constellations with eddic myths many figures of the myths can be identified. By investigating the Völundarkvida it was possible to find the sword of Völund in Nidud’s possession. The sword is the brightest star of the northern starry sky, Arcturus. Nidud is depicted as the herdsman Böotes. Surely it’s possible to equate Surtur holding Frey’s sword with Böotes and Arcturus as well. We also find the maiden Bödhild as the constellation Virgo bearing the golden ear of grain that can be seen in the northern myth either as a twig called mistiltein or as a golden ring. Continue reading HERE.
Thor’s Iron Glove: Járnglófar/Járngreipr
The head of Cetus is near to the Pleiades and to the constellation Taurus and explains perfectly why Thor needs it to hold the hammer Mjölnir.
In addition this asterism can explain some obscure details in other stories. In Skáldskaparmál Thor uses in his fight with Geirröd not his hammer to smash the giant but the glove Járngreipr to throw back a piece of hot iron. I assume the story describes the rising of the head of Cetus and the setting of Böotes (Geirröd) and the bright star Arcturus (the hot piece of iron). The tongs Geirrödr is using could be the claws of Scorpio, the iron pillar he is hiding behind is the Milky Way in the Sagittarius/Scorpio region.SOURCE
A Marriage Made in Heaven: Thor as the Bride of Thrym
Thrymskvida, the story of how Thor’s hammer Mjöllnir was stolen by the giant (thurs) Thrym and how he rescued it by disguising himself as a bride pretending to be Freyja and finally smashing Thrym with his hammer, is one of the most famous Eddic poems. It seems to be one of the oldest poems handed down to us. Nevertheless it puzzled scholars due to its content. Most see it as a genuine pre-christian poem, whereas others suspect it to be a christian parody as they find it hard to believe that one of the highest Germanic gods would have allowed himself to be dressed as a bride. See the Thrymskvida Study Guide for details.
In the case of Thrymskvida, it may be fruitful to assume an astral background of the Eddic story. As I already discussed in the essayMjöllnir – Thor’s short handled hammer it seems to be possible to connect the hammer Mjöllnir with the asterism of the Pleiades, a part of the constellation Taurus. Indeed this asterism has the shape of a hammer with a short handle. Therefore in an astronomical context the poem would describe how the asterism of the Pleiades disappears at the western horizon and how it reappears in the east.Continue reading HERE.
Death is something I have been closely connected with since a young age and in to my military career it became even more a part of my life. I have been fascinated by the idea of the afterlife and what is possibly to be after we leave this realm. As I do not believe the pirated ideologies of the Abrahamic faiths which, to be quite honest, were taken from far older Pagan beliefs and then twisted for their own agendas. On my spiritual path many many long years ago I began looking towards the Norse Goddess Hel and since then she has been a close part of my life providing me with a sense of comfort with death. I never have looked or reacted to death as what I suppose the “norm” could be classified as. But that topic regarding me could be for a future blog post regarding death. Today I want to give honor to Hel by sharing with my readers this in-depth post regarding all there is known about her along with some various outlooks and opinions.
I Am Hel (A Song of Solace) by Michaela Macha
I am Hel the Dark One, and I will get you all.
Every man and woman must come into my hall,
the young ones and the old ones, and I will not let you go,
even if all the worlds should weep for you.
I am Hel the Beautiful, be greeted and come in.
Enjoy my hospitality together with your kin.
Your ancestors are sitting next to Balder in the light,
I bid you welcome – I am Hel the Bright.
We greet you, our lady and mistress of eternity,
you will unite us with the ones who went before;
with our friends and families we keep forever company,
Hel is one of the most misunderstood and misinterpreted Goddess aspects in history. She has been greatly perverted through the years by patriarchal domination and ultimately used by the early Christian church as a scare tactic to frighten the masses into “righteous” acts. To get the real story, we have to go back to the early Nordic people and look this death Goddess in the face.
According to Norse tradition, Hel is one of three children born to Loki, the trickster, and Angrboda, the giantess. Her body and face were described as half in light and half in darkness. She was half dead and half alive. Her face was at once beautiful to look upon and horrific in form. Her siblings were Fenrir, the wolf who would destroy Asgard during Ragnarok, and Jormungand, the Midhgard serpent who lies at the bottom of the ocean wrapped around the world with his tail in his mouth (it is he that holds the world together).
Hel is cast into the netherworld and becomes the ruler of that underworld to which souls who have not died in battle will depart. As thanks for making Her ruler of the netherworld, Hel makes a gift to Odin. She gives him two ravens, Huginn and Muninn (Thought and Memory). Ravens are messengers between this realm and the next, opening pathways to death’s realm.
Her realm is named for her, Hel or Helheim. Because She accepts all to Helheim, she also becomes the judge to determine the fate of each soul in the afterlife. The evil dead are banished to a realm of icy cold death (a fate that the Nordic people found much worse in telling than a lake of fire) and torture. This particular aspect of Hel’s realm was the basis for the Judeo-Christian “hell” to which sinners are banished and tortured for eternity. Unlike the Judeo-Christian concept, Helheim also served as the shelter and gathering place of souls to be reincarnated. Hel watches over those who died peacefully of old age or illness. She cares for children and women who die in childbirth. She guides those souls who do not choose the path of war and violence through the circle of death to rebirth.
Because of Hel’s special role in the deaths of mothers in childbirth and children of all ages who die, She has become, according to some sources, the special guardian of children. Mother Goose is believed to be based on Frau Holle or Frau Holda who is a kindly and wise, if slightly horrific crone who rewards the industrious and punishes the lazy. The goose aspect is from a legend tradition that says that snow is a result of Frau Holda shaking out her bed linens.
One of the stories involving Hel is the decent of Balder into Helheim. Loki arranged for Balder to die by tricking him into a rigged contest. Because the contest was hosted in Asgard, Balder could not return to that place in death. His relocation sent him to the only other realm for the dead, Hel’s domain. His arrival to Helheim was welcomed with banquet and festival, proof that not all of Hel’s realm was torturous.
Hel governs the world beyond that of the living. In magic, she makes thin the veil between worlds. Seidhr or Nordic shamans call upon Her protection and wear the helkappe, a magic mask, to render them invisible (like Hades helm of invisibility) and enable them to pass through the gateway into the realm of death and spirit. In divination, Her special symbol is Hagalaz, hail: The embodiment of the icy realm She rules. Hel stands at the crossroads in judgment of souls who pass into Her realm. In that, She is linked to Osiris and Isis as well as Hecate.
Hel has fallen from her privileged position as guardian and ruler through years of being represented as an evil, ugly entity waiting to devour and torture lost souls. Ignorance as used Her as a means of scaring children and adults into a supposedly righteous path (instead of allowing free will to guide their actions to do what is right). May we learn and dispel the slander of years by seeing Her for the protector, judge, and guide that She originally represented.
Correspondences of Hel
Colors: white and black Moon phase: dark/new Animals: owls, ravens Herbs/Flowers: Jasmine, evergreens, any white flower Stones: moonstone, quartz crystal, onyx, hematite, obsidian Aspects: change, compassion, death, reincarnation, just rule Wheel of the Year: Samhain and Yule Rune: Hagalaz – hailSOURCE
Hel is attested to in the Prose and Poetic Eddas, in Hemskringla and Egils Saga. She is mentioned in the Gesta Denorum, and her name appears on bracteates (metal disc jewelry) from the Viking period, in Skaldic poetry, and on the Setre Comb, a 6th century artifact. She is well-known by her anglicised name Hela.
Like Greek Hades, her name is the same as the place she rules, and the name itself means “to hide”, “to cover” or “hidden place” (Hades’ name means “the hidden one”). Like Hades, both she and her realm were co-opted, corrupted and perverted by Christian colonists. Hel is both a mythical and literal place, the latter referring to grave burials. The mythic location is said to be furthest north of Miðgarðr and at the same time beneath it, the Underworld. It is separated, like Hades, from the land of the living by rivers that are challenging to cross.
In the Eddas, her brothers are Fenrir and Jörmungandr, the children of Loki and Angrboða. She is tasked by Óðin to give lodging to all who die of sickness and old age – what is called a “straw death.” She is depicted as half beautiful and alive, and half blue, the colour of cold, dead flesh. Modern artistic portrayals go further, and depict her as part corpse, an image popular in both modern paganism and pop culture.
In Norse Paganism (as in all religions) there are numerous unsettled theories regarding life after death. Modern paganism makes it clear that Hel is as it was in the pre-Christian Germanic world: not a place of universal torment or unending suffering for the sinful dead. It is far more rich and complex, and far less sinister. Nowhere in the lore does it say that Hel is a universal place of suffering, rather it has been misinterpreted as such, just like Hades in Greek myth often is.
This original concept of Hel shines through the cracks in Snorri, as honoured guests Baldr and Nanna, along with their entourage are hosted with a lavish welcoming party, and there is no indication that they are anything but comfortable and free to move about. Hel is even warm towards them – a gracious hostess, as is Norse tradition. Continue reading HERE.
Hel by Patricia Monaghan I hear you invoked every day by those ignorant of your power: Mighty Hel, Oh Hel. Thus doe she endure, the forgotten goddess, never far from us, never quite erased, Oh Hel, dark mother, we always come back to you, always, Always.
Within the Myrkþursablót tradition, there are certain sigils and bindrunes that act as keys to the old wisdom. These runes would serve as good tools for meditation and seiðr for those who yearn for the power they hold… Yet again, given the nature of rune magick, these are but a few that have come to me in trance and practice, and are shared here to serve as a guide to those wishing to begin their workings within this tradition. The runes being an unorthodox and (for the most part) unstructured form of magick, it is best for the adept to eventually use those that come to them in moments of gifted inspiration to best develop a relationship with the essences being worked with.
The Hel Rune Spell represents the death giantess, Hel. Hagalaz is Hel’s rune, as she is the ruler of Helheimr. Hagalaz is pure strife, as well as the cold hail raining on bare skin. Þurs symbolizes her hrímþurs blood, Iss her connection to Gullveig as her daughter and her Nifl-essence, and a myrkstave Algiz as her place within the death trinity.
Carnelian is a reddish-orange variety of the mineral chalcedony, ranging in shades from light to dark. The majority of the carnelian you can purchase today originally comes from India, but is dispersed all over the world with deposits in Brazil, Egypt, Uruguay, the U.S., and more.
Carnelian is believed to be named after the red-orange Kornel cherry. Artifacts using carnelian date back to the Bronze Age circa 1800 BC on the island of Crete. The Romans though Carnelian to be a stone of courage–able to shore up confidence and strength. In ancient Egypt, it was placed on mummies to assist the dead in their journey to the afterlife while architects to the pharaohs wore carnelian to denote rank and status.
In the Middle Ages, Carnelian was used by alchemists when boiling stone to release the energy of other gemstones. The word “carnelian” itself comes from a Latin word meaning “flesh” or “yellowish red”, which symbolizes bold energy and stimulation of the spirit.
Physical and Metaphysical Healing Properties of Carnelian
Carnelian has been utilized by many ancient cultures for different reasons, but it is otherwise seen as a stabilizing stone. Carnelian healing properties can help with physical, emotional, and spiritual balance. This stone can aid in stimulating tissues and organs, detoxifying as well as boosting libido and fertility.
Like all fire stones, Carnelian infuses the body with life and light calling on the powers of physical energy. It’s all about stimulating the muscles, helping oxygen to find its free flow, and keeping your tissues and organs flushed with the finest health.
Carnelians is believed to boost attitude and can even help stimulate metabolism and appetite. Carnelian is also believed to ease back problems, rheumatism, arthritis, neuralgia, and accelerates healing in bones and ligaments. It is also said to assist in relieving depression, especially in those of advanced years.
This particular stone stimulates the Sacral Chakra, located below the navel and above the pubic bone at the front of the pelvis. It controls the flow of energy and is the center of gravity of the body. It is the center of the Life Force of the body and controls the flow of information from the body to the mind and from the mind to the body. Gut feelings, intuition, and other “non-linear” communication come from this chakra.
Carnelian restores vitality as well as stimulates creativity. It gives courage, promotes positive life choices, dispels apathy and motivates for success. Carnelian is also useful for overcoming abuse or trauma of any kind. This stone additionally helps in trusting yourself, your intuition and your own perceptions. Meditation with Carnelian is highly recommended.
How to use your Carnelian
Worn as amulets by warriors and priests to gift courage and a fiery inner strength, Carnelian makes for an amazing jewel when it comes to crystal healing. Worn directly against the skin, a Carnelian bracelet, pendant or ring can bring its bright vibrations straight into the body, ensuring you get the highest level of healing power.
However, feel free to place your Carnelian anywhere in your home, office or spiritual space as it is not required to be worn in order to achieve its benefits. This stone will boost harmony, stimulate creativity and invite abundance into the atmosphere it occupies – regardless of whether it is being carried or not. Many spiritual practitioners will add Carnelian into candles to boost its energy manifestation. Burning incense or candles near the stone is said to have a similar affect.
When you work with a Carnelian stone, you’re working with a stone of alchemy. You are setting the intention that all energy that doesn’t serve you will dissipate, only to be replaced by something more harmonious.
How to cleanse your Carnelian
If you feel the need to spiritually cleanse your Carnelian, you have several options.
Smudging with incense or smoke is a common practice as far as crystal cleansing and can be applied to the cleansing ritual of a Carnelian stone as well s any other. Using herbs like sage, sweetgrass, palo santo, and lavender; this practice is held sacred for its metaphysical purposes (particularly when sage is used). To do this, hold your smudge rod or incense of choice around your crystals, visualizing that the smoke is purifying, cleansing, and charging your crystals with positive energy. Let the smoke surround your crystal for 30 seconds or so, focusing your energy on the healing, cleansing, and refreshing of your carnelian. Once you’ve finished smudging, open your window to release the smoke that the herb or incense has generated.
Setting your Carnelian out under moonlight is also believed to be a highly affective cleanser. Moonlight can equally be utilized as a “charger” for Carnelian. Place your stone by your windowsill and leave it overnight.
C) The Earth
You can even cleanse you Carnelian with the earth itself. Planting this stone in the ground will return its energy to its form and re-activate its spirit. If you feel grounded by earth, find a safe spot for burying your carnelian, such as in a garden or beside your favorite plant. Bury your Carnelian in the soil and leave it there for a day or two, then rinse with water.
What to avoid when cleansing Carnelian
You should avoid charging or cleansing your Carnelian with sunlight. Sunlight is not suitable for many stones and Carnelian is one that should not be left in the sun for long periods. It breaks down the minerals in the stone and the color fades.
Chakras – Sacral
Birthstone – July
Zodiac – Cancer, Taurus, Leo, Virgo
Planet – Mars
Element – Fire
Typical colors – Clear-to-translucent red brown which may vary from a pale orange to pink, or from grey to an intense almost black.
Since the dawn of human civilization, humans have looked to the stars in relationship to the Gods and Goddesses of their spiritual beliefs. We can see this through archeological, written and anthropological evidence and even see it currently throughout the world. Last month I published a post regarding the Astronomy of the Germanic and Scandinavian skies. Today I want to focus on one specific Loki and his place in the cosmos regarding a Moon of Jupiter and a very well know star. The oceans of this world are my most passionate fascination but the realm of the Universe is a subject I also like learning about and I hope you enjoy this as much as I do.
Lokabrenna – Star of Loki (Sirius)
Sirius is so bright that it can even be observed with the naked eye, provided that the sky is clear, the observer is at a high altitude, or the Sun is at the horizon in the eastern sky, especially as Sirius appears during the late summer months in the Northern Hemisphere.
The appearance of Sirius in the sky was seen as of immense importance in ancient times; several other cultures worshiped and offered sacrifices as the rise of Sirius signaled good fortune. (Coins retrieved from 3rd century BCE were embossed with pictures of dogs or stars emitting rays, which may signify the importance of Sirius.)
Another common name for Sirius is the ‘Dog Star’ – which coincides with arrival of the oppressive heat – hence the reason why late summer (July 3rd-August 11th) is commonly referred to as the ‘dog days.’
Being the brightest star in the sky, Lokabrenna may have also been used as a navigational tool by sailors, such as the Vikings. Interestingly enough, Arab traveler Ibn Fadlan -who wrote the Risala around 921 A.D., regarding his impressions of the Varangians (Vikings) on the Volga trade route – dedicated the largest portion of his account to describing (and opining upon) the daily practices and beliefs of these traders. Thus, Fadlan may have been the first to include reference to Sirius’ importance to the Vikings as a navigational guide in the eastern skies, among other things.SOURCE
Sirius, also known as the Dog Star, α Canis Majoris (Alpha Canis Majoris), or Canicula, is the brightest star in the night sky. It lies at a distance of 8.60 light years (2.64 parsecs) from Earth, in the constellation Canis Major, the Greater Dog. Sirius is not the brightest star because it is more luminous than other visible stars, but because it is located so close to the solar system. It is the fifth closest star system to Earth and contains two of the eight nearest stars to Earth.
Sirius is slowly moving closer to Earth and will gradually increase in brightness over the next 60,000 years, before it starts to recede. It will, however, remain the brightest star seen from Earth for the next 210,000 years.
Sirius has an apparent magnitude of -1.46, which makes it almost twice as bright as Canopus, the second brightest star in the sky, located in Carina constellation.Continue reading HERE.
A Volcano called Loki
A huge area of Io’s volcanic plains is shown in this Voyager 1 image mosaic. Numerous volcanic calderas and lava flows are visible here. Loki Patera, an active lava lake, is the large shield-shaped black feature. Heat emitted from Loki can be seen through telescopes all the way from Earth. These telescopic observations tell us that Loki has been active continuously (or at least every time astronomers have looked) since the Voyager 1 flyby in March 1979. The composition of Io’s volcanic plains and lava flows has not been determined, but they could consist dominantly of sulfur with surface frosts of sulfur dioxide or of silicates (such as basalts) encrusted with sulfur and sulfur dioxide condensates. The bright whitish patches probably consist of freshly deposited SO2 frost. The black spots, including Loki, are probably hot sulfur lava, which may remain molten by intrusions of molten silicate magma, coming up from deeper within Io. The ultimate source of heat that keeps Io active is tidal frictional heating due to the continual flexure of Io by the gravity of Jupiter and Europa, another of Jupiter’s satellites. SOURCE
The largest volcano in the solar system, located on Jupiter’s moon Io, is called Loki, named after Loki of Norse Mythology. There are several other volcanoes on the moon of Io, and all of them are named after mythical figures, most of whom are associated with fire.
Loki generates more lava and heat than all volcanoes on Earth combined, is 202km in diameter, and under the crust, is part of a molten core as large as half of the Earth’s moon.
Loki can be found on Jupiter’s moon Io. Named for the Norse God of Mischief (or comic book villain if you prefer), this volcano is considered to be the hottest and most powerful in the Solar System. Loki is officially called Loki Patera which means “Loki Basin”. Loki is not a tall volcano, it has no cone. It is the opposite, a large depression in Io’s surface that is filled with lava. Loki alone puts out more heat than all of Earth’s volcanoes combined!
Volcanism was discovered on Io by Voyager back in the 1970s. Up until this point people thought Earth was the only place with such active geology. Initially it was surprising to discover this much activity on such a tiny world. Scientists thought that since larger bodies (such as the other rocky planets, and larger moons) appeared to have thoroughly cooled and stopped exhibiting signs of active volcanism, tiny bodies such as Io wouldn’t exhibit it either. Voyager snapped photos of Io’s surface, showing large volcanic scars as well as plumes of ash reaching into the skies. Io had even more volcanic activity than Earth! SOURCE