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The Akhlut of Inuit Folklore

Creatures of folklore from indigenous cultures around thew world is one of my many fascinations. From the Rougarou of Cajun folklore to the Selkies of Irish folklore and many in-between. However I must say my absolute favorite has to be the Akhlut of Inuit folklore and for two specific reasons which its makeup of being a hybrid of a Wolf and Orca. I briefly touched on the Akhlut in my Orca blog post but today I wanted to go into more detail on this fierce creature who hunts the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland.

In Inuit folklore, the kăk-whăn’-û-ghăt kǐg-û-lu’-nǐk or akh’lut is an orca-like composite animal that takes the form of a wolf when on land, and is sometimes depicted as a wolf-orca hybrid.

In 1900, the American naturalist Edward William Nelson described the kăk-whăn’-û-ghăt kǐg-û-lu’-nǐk among a number of other mythical and composite animals:

“It is described as being similar in form to the killer whale and is credited with the power of changing at will to a wolf; after roaming about over the land it may return to the sea and again become a whale. While in the wolf form it is known by the above name, and the Eskimo say they know that this change takes place as they have seen wolf tracks leading to the edge of the sea ice and ending at the water, or beginning at the edge of the water and leading to the shore. … These animals are said to be very fierce and to kill men.”

– Edward William Nelson

Nelson attributed stories of the creature to the orca (akh’lut), and explained wolf tracks appearing to lead into the sea as the result of ice breaking away from the edge. He identifies other composite animals among Inuit folklore, including a white whale that can transform into a reindeer, and says that belief in the kăk-whăn’-û-ghăt kǐg-û-lu’-nǐk is prevalent among Inuit along the shore of the Bering Sea. SOURCE

Akhlut are known for their ferocity, and they hunt humans and animals alike.

The Akhlut is from Inuit mythology and is considered a rather vicious beast.  As you can see, it has orca traits as well as four legs.  This is because this aggressive spirit takes the form of an orca, but transforms into a wolf in order to hunt on land.  You can tell one has been around when you find wolf tracks leading to or from the icy water.  This is pretty much it as far as physical traits since it is fairly elusive.  There are times where it is described as a hybrid of a wolf and orca like above.

There are many origin myths for the Akhlut, but this is the one I found most often.  A man became obsessed with the sea and wanted to stay there.  It reached the point where the people of his village could not recognize him, so they made him leave.  He ‘hungered for revenge’ and joined a pack of wolves to survive.  He may have worked with the wolves to attack villagers, but that wasn’t consistent.  Anyway, his love of the ocean returned after he fed and he dove in to transform into an orca.  Now, he remains in that form, but returns to land and becomes a wolf whenever he is ‘hungry for revenge’.  It does appear that this eventually evolved into hungry for food over time. SOURCE

In this exhaustive story collection, the rich tradition of Inuit storytelling becomes accessible to the rest of Canada for the first time. Unipkaaqtut is the Inuit word meaning “to tell stories.”
This definitive collection of Inuit legends is thoughtfully introduced and carefully annotated to provide the historical and cultural context in which to understand this rich oral tradition.
Read about the origin of thunder and lightning, the tale of the man who married a fox and many animal fables from the North. Fascinating and educational, this little-known part of Canada’s heritage will captivate readers of all ages. As a work of historical and cultural preservation, this text will be invaluable to those studying Inuit.

What Always comes back into these stories though, is that there are footprints of a wolf to be found going to, or from the ocean, without any signs of the wolf leaving, or going to the ocean. There are, however, some simple explanations for this. First of all, the chunk of ice the arctic wolf was coming from/ going to, simply broke off. Either with the wolf still on it, or with the wolf already having left, but a few meters away. The second solution is somewhat more mysterious, and still some kind of myth. It says that sometimes, when alder arctic wolves are being rejected by a pack, they would commit suicide by jumping in the cold, icy water and drown themselves. This is rather odd, however, because survival instinct should prevent them from doing that, because it’s very strong with animals. The third explanation is that the wolf jumped into the water, swam a little bit, and came onto shore a few meters away. However, this would mean that the wolf would need a reason to swim, because it’s not really nice to swim at the north pole, and it can be rather dangerous, so this theory also has his flaws. SOURCE

Discover the world of Inuit mythology! In this video you will delve into the rich culture and beliefs of the Inuit peoples of North America. Discover their gods and spirits, their legends and myths that have been passed down from generation to generation. In this video you will learn the history of the Inuit gods, such as Sedna, the goddess of the sea and marine animals, and Nanook, the god of bears and hunting. We will also explore Inuit spirits, such as the Tupilak, spirits that could be summoned to harm others. In addition, you will discover the fascinating Inuit legends, such as that of Igaluk, the god of the moon and Malina, goddess of the sun. You will also learn about the legend of the Tunita or Dorsett, who according to legend, were the first inhabitants of their land and are described as having the musculature and strength of a polar bear.

So as you can see there is little known about this fearsome creature of the Arctic but even with what is known the Akhlut is not only my favorite creature of folklore but actually one that really resonates me on a personal and spiritual level especially due to the origin story of the Akhlut. In the future I do plan on featuring other creatures of Inuit folklore along with creatures of folklore from around the world.

Further Resources

Akhlut

Akhlut, Hunter From the Depth

What is the origin of the akhlut’s name?

Things that go bump – Akhlut

Sedna: Inuit Goddess of the Sea

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Orcas: Folklore, Symbolism and More

Being someone who grew up and spent a great deal of my U.S. Coast Guard career in the Pacific Northwest I got to see a lot of the native coastal culture which had deep connections with a certain mammal of the seas. From art to ceremonies and more you will find the Orcas incorporated into them. I myself got to witness them in the wilds of the magnificent Salish Sea, which I will be discussing that sea later on here. But before I go on I need to just say that even though the Orca has the common name “Killer Whale” I must say it is a name I personally do not like using but it will be mentioned in sited articles during this post. Orcas are not even a Whale at all but the larges member of the Dolphin family (Delphinidae). Killers? Well yes they are magnificent predators but that is nature. I find Orcas to be so special in many ways and unfortunately they are an endangered species but the good news is measures are in place to not only help preserve them but to allow in hopes that their population grows and flourishes. So with that said let us dive into the world of the Orcas.

Get to know the Orca

Orcas, also known as killer whales, are among the world’s most easily recognized marine mammals. The largest member of the dolphin family, orcas are highly intelligent and social animals, spending their lives in groups or pods where they hunt together and share responsibility for raising young and taking care of the sick or injured.

Adult orcas have shiny black backs, white chests and patches of white above and behind their eyes. They have paddle-shaped pectoral fins and tall triangular dorsal fins. Their distinct coloring mean they are easy to identify and rarely confused with other dolphins or whales. Orcas vary in size depending on where they live. Adult males are larger than adult females, with males reaching 32 feet (10 meters) in length and females growing to 28 feet (8.5 meters).

Found in every ocean on the planet, orcas are likely the most widely distributed mammal in the world, next to humans. There are three distinct types of orcas recognized in the eastern North Pacific Ocean—transient, resident, and offshore. Residents live close to shore in large pods of about 10 to 20 individuals and feed primarily on fish. Offshore orcas are similar to residents, but are distinguished by their smaller overall size and rounded, nicked fins. Transient orcas live in smaller groups of about three to seven individuals and spend their lives out at sea where they prey on seals, sea lions, and other dolphins (which, strangely, are the same animals that resident orcas like to swim and play with). All three types of orca have genetic differences and do not mingle or interbreed. SOURCE

Drawing on interviews, official records, private archives, and his own family history, Jason M. Colby tells the exhilarating and often heartbreaking story of how people came to love the ocean’s greatest predator. Historically reviled as dangerous pests, killer whales were dying by the hundreds, even thousands, by the 1950s–the victims of whalers, fishermen, and even the US military. In the Pacific Northwest, fishermen shot them, scientists harpooned them, and the Canadian government mounted a machine gun to eliminate them. But that all changed in 1965, when Seattle entrepreneur Ted Griffin became the first person to swim and perform with a captive killer whale. The show proved wildly popular, and he began capturing and selling others, including Sea World’s first Shamu.

Over the following decade, live display transformed views of Orcinus orca. The public embraced killer whales as charismatic and friendly, while scientists enjoyed their first access to live orcas. In the Pacific Northwest, these captive encounters reshaped regional values and helped drive environmental activism, including Greenpeace’s anti-whaling campaigns. Yet even as Northwesterners taught the world to love whales, they came to oppose their captivity and to fight for the freedom of a marine predator that had become a regional icon.

Orcas in popular culture

Many ancient civilizations knew them well. The Roman writer Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79, describe them as huge animals enemies of the whales. Historically, for the native peoples of North America sighting of killer whales is common, so they developed an interesting mythology about them. For example, in the beliefs of the Kwakiutl and Nuu-chah-nulth orcas acquire a relevant meaning for hosting the souls of their chiefs who have died.

Many ancient cultures show great respect for killer whales and are present in their culture and myths. This concept is a bit different in the actual cultures, as they are tagged as fierce whales and highly dangerous creatures. Although for a long time, they had a bad reputation in recent times this has been changing.

The Inuit people today know a lot about orcas. They can identify them and know what they eat, but this is because they live close to them. By contrast, many of today’s Western societies acquire this knowledge through films, literature and television. SOURCE

Killer whales / Orcas (Orcinus orca) large pod including calf traveling together while foraging on large schools of Herring (Clupea harengus) in the cold waters of northern Norway, January.

Ten facts about orcas (killer whales)

  1. Orcas are the largest member of the dolphin family.
  2. A male orca can be nearly 33 feet (10 meters) in length and weigh around 22,000 pounds (10,000kg).
  3. Orcas are highly intelligent and able to coordinate hunting tactics.
  4. Female orcas are thought to live to 80 years of age or more.
  5. The dorsal fin of a male orca is up to 6 feet (2 meters) tall.
  6. Orcas are extremely fast swimmers and have been recorded at speeds of up to 33.5 mph (54 kph).
  7. A wild orca pod can cover over 99 miles (160 kilometers) a day, foraging and socializing.
  8. They were give the name “killer whale” by ancient sailors who saw them preying on large whales.
  9. Orcas are still hunted in some countries, such as Greenland.
  10. Different kinds of orcas are called “ecotypes”. They hunt specific prey and live in different parts of the world. SOURCE

Folklore and Native Culture

The Woman Stolen by Killer Whales (Tahltan)

A man was out fishing and drying halibut, and his wife helped him.

One day he felt something very heavy on his hook and could not pull it up. He tied the line to the thwart of the canoe and paddled ashore. With much trouble he managed to land the fish on the beach.

He called on his wife to kill it quickly, and she dispatched it with her knife. She cut it up and hung it up to dry, as is done with halibut. They did not know what kind of a fish it was. It was quite strange to them, but they thought it might be good food. When the woman had finished her work, she went to the edge of the water to wash her hands.

As soon as she put her hands into the water, something seized them and pulled her underneath the sea. She had been taken by the Killer-Whales who had come to have revenge on the man for killing their friend. Continue reading HERE.

In Inuit folklore the Akhlut is an orca spirit that takes the form of a gigantic wolf or a wolf-orca hybrid when on land.

It is a vicious, dangerous beast that ventured onto land in order to hunt humans and other animals. Its tracks can be recognized because they are wolf tracks that lead to and from the ocean, indicating that the creature is waiting for prey under the water nearby.

Often, dogs seen walking to the ocean or into it are considered one of these malevolent beasts. Little is known of this spirit other than that can transform between and orca and/or wolf. SOURCE

The killer whale (Orcinus orca), also referred to as the orca whale or orca, and less commonly as the blackfish or grampus, is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales are found in all oceans, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals like pinnipeds, and even large whales. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves. Killer whales are regarded as apex predators, lacking natural predators.

Orcas in Haida Culture

The Haida myths and legends about killer whales tells how they are supernatural beings and how they basically ruled the underworld. The underworld in Haida culture refers to the ocean and everything in it. The killer whales had their own villages equivalent to the Haida villages on the surface with longhouses lined up with each other. The stories the Haida have about killer whales are endless, many of them end up being about a killer whale that stole a woman from the shore because he wanted to bring her back to his village and marry her.

There are also stories about the origins of killer whales and stories of their strength. Some say killer whales descended from coastal wolves. There was a story about a man with two wolf pups who, as they grew bigger and bigger, would swim out to sea to hunt whales. They would bring whales back for dinner everyday until one day a heavy fog came in and the wolves became lost at sea, eventually turning into killer whales.

There’s another story about how the supernatural beings were holding a contest. The island of Haida Gwaii was sinking, and to see who would be given the job of holding it up, they needed to see who the strongest. In this contest was a boy who had the ability to wear the skin of others. The contest was to see who can lay on a bed of hot coals the longest, the boy knowing the killer whales skin was the toughest, decided to cheat he took the killer whales skin and wore it when the supernatural beings weren’t looking, he won the contest. It is said he now holds up Haida Gwaii on a totem with his little pet ermine, when there is an earthquake on Haida Gwaii it is said to be the ermine running up and down the pole. Continue reading HERE.

Orca Symbolism in Indigenous Cultures of the Pacific Northwest

(Image by Cecil James from Pixabay)

The Orca, also known as the Killer Whale or Blackfish, possesses a profound significance in the rich tapestry of mythology and folklore of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. 

Amongst many tribes in the region, such as the Tlingit, Tsimshian, and Kwakiutl, the Orca is revered as a clan animal and serves as a cherished clan crest. Its powerful presence is an enduring symbol of the deep-rooted cultural traditions and profound connection to the natural world that have shaped the identity of these communities for generations.

The Orca is a venerated medicine animal, embodying an enduring symbol of strength and power. In addition, the Orca is regarded as a cherished protector of humanity among the Tlingit people. Despite their status as skilled whale hunters, the Tlingit do not hunt the Orca, acknowledging its esteemed role as a guardian of their communities. 

For the Kwakiutl tribes, the Orca held an even more poignant significance – it was believed that upon the death of a seafarer, their soul would transform into an Orca, much like forest hunters were said to become wolves. This enduring belief is a testament to the deep spiritual connection that has long existed between humans and these majestic creatures of the sea.

To catch a glimpse of an Orca off the coast is to bear witness to a poignant and meaningful omen. In some indigenous cultures, the Orca is revered as a messenger, a spiritual entity transcending the physical realm to offer guidance and wisdom to those still bound to this mortal plane. To some, the sighting of an Orca may even signify a departed chief or tribe member reaching out from beyond the veil to communicate with and protect their loved ones still walking the earth. Continue reading HERE.

During four years of shooting in the icy waters that surround the volcanic archipelago of the Crozet Islands, we have followed the trial and tribulations of Delphine, a young female adolescent killer whale. Living and growing within her family group she gradually learns how to find her bearings, how to hunt king penguins or Minke rorquals and how to get stranded in order to catch sea elephants.

Further Symbolism and Meaning of the Orca

Shamans suggest the Orca or Killer Whale knows the secrets to exquisite romance, long life, peaceful interactions, community cooperation, and perhaps a well-protected family. The Orca is a Whale and the largest member of the Oceanic Dolphin family, so they have many common characteristics, including mischief, curiosity, and intellect. The Orca brain is sophisticated, seeing the aquatic beast is the second largest among Sea Creatures.

Orcas is diligent when working within their pod, raising their calves with the meticulous care. The Orca pods are interdependent and team-oriented. Orcas travel together, hunt together, and play together. Life within the pod is social and friendly, which is one message the creature delivers to humankind: The importance of learning how to live happily together so that everyone benefits.

Orcas have an intimate connection with the Feminine principal of the Universe. They are matrilineal. A female leads each pod, teaching the young everything they need to know for survival. Should a mother in the pod pass away, the sister, grandmother, or next female in line steps into the role; this gives Orca various Yin energetic signatures including nurturing, education, bonding, comfort, facilitation, and endless patience. Even though people call them Killer Whales, the Orca Animal Guide is a gentle creature who takes an interest in those who cannot help themselves. Continue reading HERE.

Orcas of the Salish Sea

The Salish sea for me has a huge importance for me just from fond memories of traveling that sea in my career but on a spiritual level as well. The Salish sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific ocean found between northwest Washington and British Columbia that holds an amazing variety of diverse Marine and Coastal wildlife which certainly includes the Orca. The Salish sea itself is very sacred to the Native cultures who reside there as well.

An Orca pod on the move in the Salish Sea.

Orcas have been a symbol of the West Coast for many thousands of years. They they are an important part of the culture of many Indigenous peoples, belief systems, symbolism, art and storytelling.

The orca is a symbol often centered around luck, compassion and family. Orcas are known to some Indigenous communities as the guardians of the sea. To some people, orcas represent the strength of love and the bonds of family because of their strong group behaviour.

Indigenous peoples and orcas have lived in harmony in the Pacific Northwest since time immemorial. It is important to look to Indigenous communities for knowledge and understanding of the history, location, and behaviours of the Pacific Northwest’s orca populations, as well as to their leadership, when developing protection and recovery actions. SOURCE

photo: Animalia Life

The Pacific Northwest is home to three Orca ecotypes

  • Resident Orcas, of which there are two distinct populations
  • Bigg’s orcas, also known as transients: approx. 400 individuals (population increasing)
  • Offshore orcas: approx. 300 individuals (population trend unknown) SOURCE

The Orca People (qalqaləxič)

Coast Salish peoples, here for thousands of years before settlers arrived, shared a strong belief in the existence of “myth age,” when beings sharing both human and animal qualities roamed the earth. According to legend, a Changer (dukʷibəɬ) transformed beings into animals, giving the native people the essential elements of their culture.

The killer whale or orca is important to the Tulalip Tribes. As the Snohomish legend goes, if a killer whale approaches their canoe, they will greet it with these words: “killer whale, killer whale, your ancestors were also my ancestors.”

A long-told Tulalip story says there were two brothers, famous seal hunters, who went to live in the ocean and became killer whales. Later, when the Tulalip people had been starving, they were relieved to see the salmon arrive.

Suddenly, seals arrived, too, and began devouring the salmon. Remembering their seal-hunting ancestors, the qalq̓aləx̌ič, they called them for help. The killer whales heard the call and arrived to kill the seals, saving the salmon and the Tulalip people from starvation.

“Tulalip” comes from the Lushootseed word dxʷlilap (far towards the end) referring to the wide berth cut by canoes entering Tulalip bay, eight miles north of Mukilteo, to avoid running aground. Tulalip tribal members are the direct descendants of the Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Skykomish, and other allied tribes and bands signatory to the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott, which was signed here. SOURCE

Meet Onyx and the orcas of J pod, the world’s most famous whales.
Illustrated with stunning photos, this picture book introduces young readers to the orcas humans first fell in love with. The members of J pod live in the Salish Sea, off the coast of Washington and British Columbia. Moby Doll was the first orca ever displayed in captivity, Granny was the oldest orca known to humanity, and Scarlet was the orca humans fought to save.

Orcas of the Salish Sea Written By Kaori Pi

The black dorsal fin slices up slowly with barely a ripple. First it rises about a foot above the surface. Like a submarine’s periscope, it travels straight ahead for twenty feet until the mighty stroke of the adult male’s flukes lift six feet of dripping, wavy fin into the air. A huge torpedo-shaped head pushes out just far enough for a loud burst of air out the blowhole and a quick suck to refill the orca’s lungs before it arcs silently back into the depths.

It’s J3, a male over 40 years old, rising to breathe beside his family. His mother’s sister plows up next to him to heave an explosive blow, followed by three more generations of J pod orcas, all closely related and inseparable their entire lives. J3’s age is documented from photos taken in the first years of demographic field research in the mid-1970’s. Several females are much older, however, including two, J2 and K7, both estimated to be over 90 years old in 1995.

Wispy clouds of vapor linger high over their heads as they pass a hundred yards from Lime Kiln Lighthouse at Whale Watch Park. One suddenly twists in tight circles pursuing a large salmon. The others dive into the kelp, rubbing the long soft strands along their backs and into the notches of their flukes as they check for salmon hiding in the shadows. Above them the snow-whitened Olympics stand watch over this vast inland sea, glowing with red-orange hues in the early morning sun. Continue reading HERE.

For eons, a one-of-a-kind population of killer whales has hunted Chinook salmon along the Pacific Coast of the United States. For the last 40 years, renowned whale scientist Ken Balcomb has closely observed them. He’s familiar with a deadly pattern – as salmon numbers plummet, orcas starve. The solution, says Balcomb, is getting rid of four fish-killing dams 500 miles away on the largest tributary to what once was the largest Chinook producing river on earth. Studying whales is science. Removing dams is politics. Defiantly mixing the two, says Balcomb, has become the most important work of his storied career. Meanwhile, the race to extinction for salmon and orcas speeds up, nipping at the heels of the plodding, clumsy pace of political change in the Pacific Northwest, where dams and hydropower are king.

In Conclusion

So in conclusion as you have seen during this blog post there is a tremendous amount of information regarding these amazing Wolves of the Seas and I could have gone on further but I felt ending the Blog with the Orcas of my homeland felt suiting. Even as I wrote and put together the sources for this one I for a moment felt like I was back home which is something special for me. I can only hope that someday I return home to the Pacific Northwest and once again can take to sea and experience with my own eyes the beauty of the Orcas.

Further Resources

Spirits of the Coast: Orcas in science, art and history

Orca guide: diet, how they hunt, and what they’re related to

9 Reasons to Be Obsessed with Orcas

Native American Killer Whale Mythology (Orca or Blackfish)

Orca Whales (Pacific Northwest)

The language of Whales